Considering the population density, healthcare capacity, limited resources and existing poverty, environmental factors, social structure, cultural norms, and already more than 18,863 people infected, the community transmission of COVID-19 is happening fast. These exacerbated a complex fear among the public. The aim of this article is, therefore, to understand the public perception of socioeconomic crisis and human stress in resource-limited settings of Bangladesh during the COVID-19 outbreak.
The sample comprised of 1066 Bangladeshi participants. Principal component analysis (PCA) was considered to design a standardized scale to measure the mental stress and socioeconomic crisis, one-way ANOVA and t-test were conducted to perceive different demographic risk groups; multiple linear regression was applied to estimate the statistically significant association between each component, and classical test theory (CTT) analysis was applied to examine the reliability of each item according to the components to develop a composite score. Without safeguarding the fundamental needs for the vulnerable ultra-poor group can undeniably cause the socioeconomic crisis and mental stress due to the COVID-19 lockdown.
It has further created unemployment, deprivation, hunger, and social conflicts. The weak governance in the fragile healthcare system exacerbates the general public’s anxiety as the COVID-19 testing facilities are centered around in the urban areas, a long serial to be tested, minimum or no treatment facilities in the dedicated hospital units for COVID-19 patients are the chief observations hampered along with the disruption of other critical healthcare services. One-way ANOVA and t-test confirmed food and nutritional deficiency among the vulnerable poorest section due to loss of livelihood. Also, different emergency service provider professions such as doctors, healthcare staff, police forces, volunteer organizations at the frontline, and bankers are at higher risk of infection and subsequently mentally stressed. Proper risk assessment of the pandemic and dependable risk communications to risk groups,
multi-sectoral management taskforce development, transparency, and good governance with inter-ministerial coordination is required along with strengthening healthcare capacity was suggested to reduce mental and social stress causing a socioeconomic crisis of COVID-19 outbreak. Moreover, relief for the low-income population, proper biomedical waste management through incineration, and preparation for the possible natural disasters such as flood, cyclones, and another infectious disease such as dengue was suggested. Finally, this assessment process could help the government and policymakers to judge the public perceptions to deal with COVID-19 pandemic in densely populated lower-middle-income and limited-resource countries like Bangladesh.
Currently the entire world is experiencing the desolation and devastation of a deadly virus, the new disease of COVID-19, emerging from the new coronavirus SARS-CoV 2, has spread throughout the world, affecting more than 200 countries and hundreds of people, with discouraging morbidity and mortality figures. All this started at the end of December 2019, specifically on the 31st,
where the Chinese Disease Control Center reported 27 cases of patients with pneumonia of uncertain etiology and who had in common a Hunan seafood market that it lacked sanitary measures, warning of a possible zoonosis. On January 7 its causal agent was identified, which was a coronavirus and it was called with the name of the new coronavirus (2019-nCoV). The researchers delimited the 2019- nCoV sequence with that of other viruses through a database of genetic sequences, discovering that the most related were two viruses of Chiroptera origin as indicated by their scientific name (bats), (bat-SL -CoVZC45 and bat-SLCoVZXC21).
However, their similarities were less than 90%, therefore, it was suggested that there was the possibility that there was another animal reservoir that acted as an intermediary between bats and humans. On February 11, the WHO coined the name SARS-CoV 2 and until March 11 it was declared by the same entity as a pandemic.
The clinical picture of patients with COVID-19 has a pattern of respiratory dominance and depends on the tropism of the virus towards the target organs of the body, because SARSCoV-2 uses the ACE-2 receptor for its entry into the host cell . The virus binds ACE-2 with an affinity 10-20 times greater than SARS-CoV. This receptor is highly expressed in multiple body tissues, including lung, gastrointestinal, kidney and cardiac tissue, explaining the symptoms present in the prodrome of the disease
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Coronaviruses are a large family of respiratory viruses that can cause illness in people and animals. In rare cases, coronaviruses that circulate among animals can evolve and infect humans. In turn, these infections can easily spread from person-to-person as was the case with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV) and Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV).
An outbreak of the novel (new) coronavirus was first reported in December 2019 when cases of viral pneumonia with unknown origin were confirmed in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Because of its similarity to SARS-CoV, the virus has been named: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This virus causes the disease referred to as COVID-19 – Coronavirus disease 2019. Similar to other coronaviruses SARS-CoV-2 is suspected to have come from animals, potentially bats.
The virus is primarily transmitted from person-to-person by coming into contact with an infected person’s droplets. When an infected person coughs, sneezes or exhales, droplets are expelled and can land in another person’s nose or mouth and inhaled into the lungs. The virus can be transmitted by an infected person not showing symptoms of illness. This is why it’s important to stay at least 2 metres (6 feet) apart.
Infected droplets can also land on surfaces or objects. It may be possible for a person to contract the virus when they touch an infected surface and then touch their mouth, nose, or eyes.
There is growing evidence that people infected with COVID-19 can transmit the virus to others before symptoms develop (known as pre-symptomatic transmission). It is also possible for people with mild symptoms (such as a mild cough and no other signs of illness) or no signs of illness to transmit the virus.
COVID-19 cases have been reported in many countries around the world. For real-time updates,
Returning travellers from high risk areas and those living in communities where there is local transmission of COVID-19 are at higher risk. Refer to your local and national health authority for guidance on prevention measures taking place in your community – be sure to comply with local restrictions on travel and gatherings.
The most common symptoms include flu-like symptoms such as fever, dry cough, and shortness of breath or difficulty breathing. Symptoms can also include chills and repeated shaking, muscle pain, headache, sore throat, and loss of sense of taste or smell. Symptoms typically appear within 2 days to 14 days after exposure.
Those with a weakened immune system, the elderly, and those with a pre-existing condition (specifically high blood pressure, heart or lung disease, cancer or diabetes) appear to be more prone to severe illness.
Seek medical attention immediately if you experience trouble breathing, persistent chest pain or pressure, blue lips or face, or confusion.
There is currently no vaccine or medication approved for COVID-19 prevention or treatment. Refer to your local and national public health authority to learn about prevention measures taking place in your community.
You can protect yourself from COVID-19 and protect others by doing the following:
- Practice good hand hygiene. Wash your hands frequently and thoroughly with soap and water. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer containing at least 60% alcohol where soap and water are not available. (Are you washing your hands properly?
- Avoid close contact with those who appear sick – keep a distance of at least 2 metres (6 feet) from someone who is coughing or sneezing. Wash your hands immediately after contact with a sick person or their environment.
- Avoid touching your face.
- Sneeze and cough into the crook of your arm or a tissue. Dispose of the tissue immediately after use and wash your hands.
- Wear a mask in public spaces (as recommended or required by your local health authority).
- Stay at home if you feel ill. Even if you have mild symptoms such as a headache or runny nose it’s important to stay home to avoid transmitting illness to others. Call your healthcare practitioner if you experience a fever, cough, and have difficulty breathing.
- Practice physical distancing by staying at home and avoiding close contact with others. Examples of physical distancing include working from home if possible, avoiding public spaces (restaurants, movie theatres), taking necessary trips outside during off-peak hours, and using virtual tools to stay in touch with others.
If you suspect you have been exposed to COVID-19 or recently returned from travelling, you may be advised by your health authority to self-isolate for 14 days to see if symptoms of COVID-19 develop. Self-isolation involves:
- Staying at home.
- Staying at least 2 metres (6 feet) away from people in your household.
- Practicing good personal hygiene measures, such as regular hand washing, proper cough and sneeze etiquette, and avoiding touching your face.
- Not sharing items such as towels and utensils and disinfecting surfaces frequently.
- Not having visitors.
If it is confirmed that you have COVID-19, your healthcare practitioner and health authority will advise you on additional self-isolation measures. People who are diagnosed with COVID-19 are advised to follow the self-isolation measures outlined above and wear a mask to reduce the risk of transmitting the virus to others. Learn more about self-isolation here.
Note: There is a worldwide shortage of medical masks. Please reserve medical masks and N95 masks for healthcare professionals, persons diagnosed with COVID-19, and those caring for someone with COVID-19. If your local health authority requires or advises that you wear a mask in public, you can learn how to make a non-medical mask here.
Travel and COVID-19
To reduce the global spread of COVID-19, many governments and public health authorities continue to advise against non-essential travel and have placed restrictions on international departures and arrivals. You can view current travel restrictions and entry requirements here. Note that these requirements are subject to change at short notice and travellers should check with their airline before departure, as well as their destination’s embassy.
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Essay on Covid 19 in English 500 Words
Coronavirus essay in English – Corona Virus which is commonly known as COVID-19 is an infectious disease that causes illness in the respiratory system in humans. The term Covid 19 is sort of an acronym, derived from “Novel Corona Virus Disease 2019”. Corona Virus has affected our day to day life. This pandemic has affected millions of peoples, who are either sick or are being killed due to the spread of this disease.
COVID-19 is a new virus that is impacting the whole world badly as it is spreading primarily through contact with the person. It is spread from person to person among those in close contact within 6 feet. Most of the countries have slowed down their manufacturing of the products.
Symptoms of COVID-19
The most common symptoms of this viral infection are fever, cold, cough, bone pain, and respiratory problems. Apart from these symptoms like Fatigue, Sore throat, muscle pain, loss of smell or taste can also be seen in Corona Virus patients.
Prevention of COVID-19
Thus, the emphasis is on taking extensive precautions such as extensive hygiene, regularly washing of hands with sanitizers or soap, avoidance of face-to-face interaction, social distancing, and wearing a mask, etc.
Origin of Coronavirus
Coronavirus (or COVID-19) was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan city of China. In March 2020, the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the Corona Virus outbreak a pandemic.
Due to Corona Virus, the Government of India under Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced nationwide lockdown for 21 days on 23 March 2020, limiting the movement of the entire 1.3 billion population of India as a preventing measure against the Coronavirus pandemic in India.
As a result, in India, all educational institutions and almost every commercial establishment had to be shut down. International, as well as intra-state travel, was banned. India suspended all tourist visas, as a majority of the confirmed cases were linked to other countries.
Thousands of migrant workers were walking across India to reunite with their families in their native places. Indian migrant workers during the COVID-19 pandemic have faced multiple hardships. With the closure of factories and workplaces due to lockdown, millions of migrant workers had to deal with the loss of income, food shortages, and uncertainty.
The various industries and sectors are affected by the cause of this disease including the pharmaceuticals industry, power sector, educational institution, tourism. This Coronavirus creates drastic effects on the daily life of citizens, as well as on the global economy.
All the governments, health organizations, and other authorities are continuously focusing on identifying the cases affected by the COVID-19. Healthcare professionals face lots of difficulties in maintaining the quality of healthcare these days.
With the world facing the coronavirus crisis, the pandemic has wreaked havoc and altered human lives forever. Its impact and the untoward consequences will be felt long after the virus diminishes.
Yet, in times like this, hope is a powerful healer. Mankind stands united in its struggle against the Covid 19 pandemic and life will surely triumph.
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