বিষয়: Short essay on Agricultural Mechanization,article on Agricultural Mechanization, Agricultural Mechanization Essay,Write A composition Agricultural Mechanization, Essay : Agricultural Mechanization,composition :’Agricultural Mechanization
In G. D. Aggarwal’s words, “Farm mechanization is a term used in a very broad’ sense. It not only includes the use of machines, whether mobile or immobile, small or large, run by power and used for tillage operations, harvesting and thrashing but also includes power lifts for irrigation, trucks for haulage of farm produce, processing machines, dairy appliances for cream separating, butter making, oil pressing, cotton ginning, rice hulling, and even various electrical home appliances like radios, irons, washing machines, vacuum cleaners and hot plates.”
According to Dr. Bhattacharjee, “Mechanization of agriculture and farming process connotes application of machine power to work on land, usually performed by bullocks, horses and other draught animals or by human labour.”
According to Dr. C. B. Memoria, “It (mechanization) chiefly consists in either replacing, or assisting or doing away with both the animal and human labour in farming by mechanical power wherever possible.”
“Mechanization may be either partial or complete. It is partial when only a part of the farm work is done by machine. When animal or human labour is completely dispensed with by power supplying machines, it is termed as complete.”
“Broadly speaking mechanization of agriculture has two forms mobile mechanization and the stationary types of mechanization. The former attempts to replace animal power on which agriculture has been based for very many centuries; while the latter aims at reducing the drudgery of certain operations which have to be performed cither by human labour or by a combined effort of human beings and animals.”
Mechanisation of farm indicates the use of machines for conducting agricultural operations replacing the traditional methods which involve human and animal labour. Thus, mechanisation is a process of replacing biological sources of energy involving animal and human labour to mechanised sources of energy which includes various machines like tractors, threshers, harvesters, pumpsets etc.
In a mechanised farm, ploughing is done by tractor; sowing and applying fertiliser by the drill: reaping the threshing by the combined harvest thresher etc. Thus, mechanisation of agriculture involves in the use of different machineries in farming operation right from ploughing to marketing of produce. Mechanisation may be either complete or partial.
When all the farming operations are done by machines reducing human labour and displacing animal labour completely then the mechanisation are complete. But when machines are used alongwith traditional methods in agricultural operation then the mechanisation is partial. In developed countries as supply of labour is scarce thus they go for complete mechanisation of agriculture.
আরো ও সাজেশন:-
But in Third World countries like India when scarcity of capital persists and supply of labour is abundant, partial mechanisation will be the most suitable remedy. The factors which are creating hurdles against the mechanisation of agriculture include mounting pressure of population on land, small and fragmented holding, acute poverty and ignorance among the farmers etc.
Thus mechanisation also helps in improving utilization efficiency of other inputs, safety and comfort of the agricultural worker, improvements in the quality and value addition of the agricultural produce and also enabling the farmers to raise a second crop or multi-crops making the Indian agriculture attractive and a way of life by becoming commercial instead of subsistence.
It is known to us that farm power availability and the average food grain yield have a direct relationship. Those states like Punjab and Haryana, where availability of farm power is more usually have in general higher productivity as compared to other states.
Though India is considered as one of the top countries in respect of agricultural production but in terms of farm mechanization, it is behind the world average. For instance, the tractor density in India is about 16 tractors for 1000 hectares land, while the world average is 19 tractors and that of developed countries is very high. Thus it is observed that there is significant opportunity and scope for mechanization of agriculture
|ভাবসম্প্রসারণ/প্রবন্ধ, অনুচ্ছেদ/ রচনা/আবেদন পত্র/প্রতিবেদন/ চিঠি ও ইমেল
Agricultural mechanization is the process of driving energy between man and materials in a farm production system powered by engine or motorized equipments . It simplifies and reduces heavy work, compensates for labor shortages, enhances productivity and may contribute to the mitigation of climate-related threats . In Bangladesh, agricultural mechanization dates back to the early sixties when deep tube well (DTW) for irrigation was introduced . After independence in 1971, the irrigation policy in Bangladesh was radically changed promoting the use of shallow tube wells (STWs) and low lift pumps (LLPs) . A wider mechanization process would start only after 1988 when major import tariffs were removed for some agricultural equipments  including two-wheeled tractors (2WTs). This policy change prompted an import surge of small engines and machineries primarily from China . As a result, the cost of agricultural machineries dropped and their sales rose significantly. Six years later, the import of 2 TWs was made completely duty free and encouraging private sector involvements.
In the 1990s, a steady increase in the demand of agricultural machineries prompted the establishment of local agro-machinery manufacturing workshops in the country . As many of these workshops were slowly transforming into small scale industries, a further expansion of this sector was marked by the National Agricultural Policy of 1999 through tax relief and credit facilities . As a result, Bangladesh emerged as one of the most mechanized agricultural economies in South Asia [14,15]. The market size for agricultural machineries consistently expanded over time, and the quality of the products was now very important. Many of the local entrepreneurs produced sub-standard machineries and sold to the farmers at the lowest price, which created a negative impact among the farmers . Maintaining precision manufacturing process therefore, emerged as a new challenge in this sector.
The early growth of agricultural mechanization in Bangladesh was facilitated by a focus on small-scale machinery adaptable to its socio-economic context. The second phase of growth was linked with imported machinery coupled with local production of sparer parts. The present and third phase of farm mechanization in Bangladesh is a factorial of many public and private initiatives fostered by the ‘National Agricultural Mechanization Policy’ drafted in 2020 . This policy document emphasized the role of appropriate scale mechanization in the country by ensuring technical support for extension of agricultural machinery at all levels. It also documented the need for development and creation of agricultural machinery service providers as an entrepreneurship model.
As a developing country, Bangladesh’s recent achievements are attributed to the sustained growth in its agricultural sector. Despite commendable performance indices, agricultural productivity in the country is still very low. The scientific community agrees that farm mechanization could foster the future growth of agricultural sector by ensuring the timeliness of operation and minimizing the associated costs. This is particularly important in order to minimize the adverse effects of climate change of which Bangladesh is a frontline victim. At times like COVID-19 pandemic, the necessity of farm mechanization has been felt by many. Since the outbreak began, combined harvesters were introduced at haste in different parts of the country in order to save millions of hectares of ripen paddy grains from the imminent threat of early flood. Similar initiatives in other sectors of agriculture i.e., transplanting, spraying and precision agriculture could also enhance the overall agricultural productivity in the country. It is therefore important that the strength and weaknesses of agricultural mechanization in Bangladesh is reviewed in light of important recent developments. In this regard, we also reviewed the potential of how agricultural mechanization could help the Bangladesh economy at times like COVID-19 outbreak, and also during other natural disasters.
- State of farm mechanization
A comprehensive and up-to-date census of different farm machineries used in the country is absent in Bangladesh. The compilation of the data presented in this study (Table 1) was therefore based on the latest annual reports and surveys published by different ministries, organizations, sales report of importers, and major manufacturers of farm machineries in the country reflecting the pre-pandemic scenario. With regards to the number, diesel engines stood out as the most favored source of power amongst the farmers. These are used mainly to run irrigation pumps although a wide variety of other agricultural works also uses diesel engines. For instance, rural transportation of agricultural commodities are largely dependent on small, locally made boats and trolleys that are run by diesel engine. Such popularity can also be explained by the fact that diesel fuel is heavily subsidized by the Government of Bangladesh . As a complete implement, power tillers (2WTs) also run by diesel engines tops the list of tillage machineries (745,000 units) as shown in Table 1. Compared to the four wheel tractors, 2WTs have low price tag and their movement in the fields is also easy. Furthermore, local technicians all around the country have by now mastered the repair and maintenance of 2WTs which encourages farmers to invest in these equipments. At present, about 80% land of the country is tilled by 2WTs  while the remaining 15% land is covered by tractors (Fig. 1).
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